There are a couple of Kbs available but then they have not been updated as yet. I doubt if there is any consolidated doc like that. If you want to know details of a specific error code that you are getting, you can post it on communities, someone maybe able to help you.
Also check this, https://communities.bmc.com/communities/message/242002#242002 in a similar thread I posted some error codes.
Also need to remember that BladeLogic is a wrapper around the native OS processes, and in many cases (patching or deploy for example), the exit code comes from non-BladeLogic binary and presented to the user. We try to publish KB articles for known specific error messages and remediation steps.
Example, Deploy Job failed with -5003 - this is a general exit code that says the Deploy Job failed in the Simulate mode, but this does not really help which regards to resolution, you need to review other logs such as rscd.log, bltargetjobmanager.log (and sometimes bldeploy log) for further info.