The permissions are granted at the object level - the component or the server. You can't grant permissions on some parts of a server/component. so to do this you will need 2 components.
Do you mean create two instances of the same component on a single server?
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Possibly. I think what you are saying is that in 1 component you have a directory like /foo added as a part. under /foo you have a sub directory bar (so /foo/bar). You want to grant your users read access to /foo, but for /foo/bar you want to give them write access.
You can't grant read and read/write in the same component to different parts. So you need two components. One template can have the part '/foo' and the other would have '/foo/bar'. On the first template's components you grant Read only, on the 2nd you grant read/write.
The only question here will be the ACLs on the underlying server, I'm not clear if you will have to grant write on the server too, or you can do this all through the components...