Hi Florian Ruehland,
You can directly create a coded app by following doc.
Once the app/lib is created, you can deploy it on a sandbox and then you can create object like Record Definition, View, Process etc in the deployed coded bundle as you do for codeless bundles.
After you have created all objects in the bundle, you can export the bundle to include RD, View etc using mvn export command.
Thanks for the elaborate reply! I stumbled over this site before, however the problem with this approach is that it is not very straightforward. Having to deploy/modify/extract an empty library seems pretty much "around the corner" and I thus wondered if there was another, i.e. easier way to create at least views and records.
Until now I could not find an easier solution, however.
I believe you are looking only for creating a lib with some Record Definitions, View, you can simply do it using UI on developer instance what we call as Codeless apps like below:
But for a coded app you will have to go via document link that I shared.