Filtering of table fields allows to set up filters for large table fields - but this can "only" be set by using the Filter menu on the top of the table field. Easier for the user to understand would be to allow to set the filter criteria at the header in the header column of the table.
Similar to MS Excel the user can select the filters one by one and can immediately see the results. The remaining not selected filters should be updated by the remaing result list.
Example - A list showing cars with the columns: Manufacturer, Engine Type, Model:
So we have
The user selects for example the manufacturer BMW as a filter.
Now he wants to select the "Model" - if the filter criteria for Model is not updated, then he gets A1, A2, 180, 220.
But as a user I expect to have just 180 and 220 in the filter options of Model.
Yes, if the already selected criteria is changed then it might be possible to get an empty list. But that is similar to select in the filter menu having no results and the search can be easily corrected by removing the column criteria displayed on the top.
I think this approach is more intuitive than setting up the filters by using the current filter menu on the top. It needs less clicks and supports the user setting the correct filter criteria.